Written by Udayan Majumder
History of Nadia district (currently revised spelling ‘Nadia’) during the reign of British East India Company in 1787, is ancient and glorious. This Nadia district is a witness to many important aspects of history. Matiyari, one of the oldest historical villages in Nadia, is a village under Krishnaganj thana of Nadia district, adjacent to Bangladesh border.
Although many things about the naming of Matiyari village are common, most of the people think that this is the name given that the village is standing on a high ground mound or stack. Bangladesh is in the north-east of the village. The barbed areas are in Rajapur, Dhopakhali, Jiban Nagar, Gayeshpur, Goalpara village of Chuadanga district. In the north-west direction of the village, there are Hatiyar fen, Kathua fen, Natun fen and Charatalla fen. The Mathabhanga tribiutary has passed through the village, whose west section is Churli and the eastern section flows south towards Ichhamati.
In 1606, ‘Zamindar’ (landlord) Bhavnanda Majumder, first established his capital at Matriari village of Nadia. Bhabananda Majumder was the ancestor of ‘Nadiadhipati’ (king of Nadia) Maharaj Krishnachandra Majumdar.
Durgadas was the first son of Ramchandra Samaddar. Brave, intelligent, clever, crafty Durgadas helped the Manashingh commander to win the ruler of Jessore Raja Pratapaditya in the time of Jahangir (1605 to 1627 AD). As a result of this, Emperor Jahangir issued a decree in 1606, giving zamindari to Durgadas of 14 parganas like Nadia, Mahatpur, Leopa, Sultanpur, Kashimpur, Maupdah, Ba’isha, Masunda etc. Its support is found in “Kshitish Bangshabali Charit” written by Dewan Kartikechandra Roy of Krishnanagar Rajbari.
Durgadas became known as ‘Bhawananda Mazumdar’ after becoming a landlord. To look after the zamindari, Bhabananda established his first capital in the Matiriyar of Krishnaganj thana of present-day Nadia district. At the same time, another palace was established in Baguane in Meherpur district of Bangladesh. Subsequently, Maharaja Krishnachandra, the 8th person of this dynasty, shifted to Krishnanagar in the capital in 1728.
During Bhawananda Mazumdar, Matariyari was considered as a village. Then the wealthy village was considered by the rich and educated people living, adequate water bodies and villages rich in cultivable land. In that sense there was no shortage in Matiyeer. The fate of many Hindu-Muslim families, renowned Sanskrit tolls, pedestrians, music and culture practices in Nadia was in Matarii. Matariyi was called the second Nabadwip as the important seat of Sanskrit practice. Matiyarai lived like Jaduwatta, Jahnu Mahapatra, Narayan Mallik, like the Guinness.
As a witness to the old tradition, the sign of Rajbari marks the way to the extinction today. The gardens of the palace, the pond, the old Naibbari is no longer in its respect. Lord Raghav Roy, the grandson of Bhawananda Majumdar, who was established his ‘Rudraswar’ Shivamandir, lost his virtue silently. Rajbari chest founded by Raja Raghav Roy in 1665, terracotta sculpture Shivamandir is one of the oldest Shiva temples of Nadia district. In the temple, Shilinga, black marble stone, became ‘Rudraswar’. Among the terracotta figurines on the temple, the blacksmiths, the procession of the goons, the boats, the horse fighter and the elephant backing, the plaques of the Mughal fighters were lost due to the proper maintenance.
During Bhavnand’s time Matiyari village was a community of co-existence of the Hindu-Muslim community. That is why, in Matiyeri, at the same time, the Shiva temple ‘Rudraswar’ and the dargah of Pir Malik ul Gauss or ‘Durga Baba Saheb’ – is seen. As far as it is known, Malik Ul Gauss or ‘Puro Pir Baba’ was born in a wealthy family of Ispahan city of Persia in the sixteenth century, after which he left home for self-discovery. Several states of India went to Matiriyar in present-day Pashimganj. At the special request of King Bhaban, the present Matariyari dargah started living in the adjacent areas and kept body there. His hometown is the dargah of his father Babasaheb. In his lifetime, Raja Bhawananda Mazumdar conferred the title of Hazrat Shah Mulu Ule Gauss, ie Fakir Badshah. The arrival and birth anniversary of the Buddha Shah 7th Ashadh in Ambbatchi Tithi. The festival is still held today in the Darga.
The current Matriari village Bhawananda Mazumdar’s period is much shorter than the similar Matriari village. In view of the transit of capital and the subsequent different perspectives, many villages around the present time are separated from Matiri. Matiyari is now making a lot of progress or a village, including the oldest high school (Matiyari Banpur High School), the health station to the railway station (Banpur Railway Station), with all the modern facilities. Mother’s mother is a mother of many children. Even if she does not lift her face in the light of the preaching, she is still in her husband’s house.
Gratitude: Former teacher and renowned poet of Banpur High School, Sreeptakumar Mitra and his edited ‘Akash Baraamala’ (Regional History Issues), Tamosree Mitra Bangali History-Niharranjan Roy, Nadia Kahini-Kumudanath Mallik, Nadia-Nitai Ghosh, in the context of history, agricultural literary- Swapan Bhaumik