Written by Dr. Swapan Kumar Thakur
‘Pandu Rajar Dhibi’ (the mound of King Pandu) is not only the wealth of the Burdwan district but also the cultural heritage of ancient Bengal. In the time of Harappa civilization, the Copper civilization of Rarh region spread rapidly from the mound of King Pandu in the greater areas, including the Banshwar Dangaa, Santal Danga and Mangalkot of Bardhaman district. Katwa sub-divisional Mangalkot village is situated on a large archipelago. The large ground there has become many small ground in the area, becuase of river-drain, drainage system, and know they are known as the Sarkari (govt) ground, the Manu Miya’s ground, the Neel ground, the Vikramaditya ground etc. Most of the grounds have been excavated by the University of Calcutta. They found the signs of a continuous evolution of the population from the Copper civilization to the recent times. Not only the Mangalkot; there are the Devityadanga of Sripur-Devpur, the Jakhardanga of Erua, the Gangadanga of Ketugram, the Ramdadanga in Keogurhi Shekardanga, Jhamatpur, Rasdanga of Kumbootpur, Paldanga of Chitahhati, Khetrapal Danga of Panduga etc. These archaeological sites have not been officially excavated yet, but they have been excavated and archives are being collected by the private parties from various sources. Another thing to note is that all the ancient Bengalis’ cultural history is asleep in the archieve.
Madabari Danga of Buichi village of Valyo Gram Panchayet, about 14kms from Mangolkot, is one of the well known archive from all other archives. There was found potteries, Terracotta slabs from Kushan era and also an invaluable inscription written on Bramhi-Kharoshthi. The inscription was first deciphered by renowned historian, Late Bratindranath Mukhopadhaya. As the witter of this article was of this village, he got the opportunity to show Professor Mukherjee, what he had found from the mound, many times. After observing the matter, he also gave the opinion. After the intervention of the central archaeology department, in the year 2005, the attendant superintendent archaeologist Mr. PK Mukherjee and Mr. PK Naik visited the mound. But nothing has been done on the work yet. The condition of the mound is very bad. However, I think it is necessary to provide some important information about Bauchiagram before the details of the mound.
The village situated 13 km southwest of Katwa. The village was mentioned on the map of Renel. There was ‘Nilkuthi’ (indigo factory) in the village. The village is three kilometers long by east and west. Burdwan-Katwa main road on the east corner of the village. Once upon a time, the road was full of ‘Bagdi’ bandits. Their ‘Dakate Kali’ is now the main festival of the village. In the south there is the Kandar, popularly known as Fore river. Once it was flow along the side of the mound. Seeing the nature of the Kandar, it is understood that that was a large river in the past. Although the peasant community lives, the population has emerged from other villages in the last hundred years. The number of ponds in the village is more than 50. The Dhyancha ground is along side of the Kandar. This Dhyancha Township got the status of ‘Pargana’ during the Mughal period. Later this Dhyancha township became Mangalkot police station. A section of Dhyancha has now become the part of Yageeshwardihi village. A broken Vishnu statue from the Dhyancha township is being worshiped at Dasapara of Yageeshwardihi.
Buichi has a close relationship with Mangalkot and Ujani. Ujani is a ‘Satyapith’ (place of Truth). The name of the the Goddess is Mangalchandi. The name of Bhairab is Kapilambar. Kabir Bharatchandra Roy has written,
Ujani-te Kafoni Mangal Chandi Devi.
Bhairab Kapilambar Shuva Jare Sebi.
‘Poltola Krishnavaran’ Brahharab statue, is worshiped today even today, beside the goddess Mangalchandi. In the Bhairavamandir, the staue of the great Kapilambar was worshiped in the village of Bauchi. The field of the south-west corner of the village is Kapilambar or Nilambar field. A large ‘Gauripatta’ has been discovered from the ground in the beginning of the century. And that is currently worshiped as God Shiva. And ‘Shiver Gajan’ is now one of the main celebration of the village. Gauripatta is about two feet in length, one foot in height, about 60 kg of weight, made of stone. From Buichi to Kogram, the goddess Mangalchandi is worshiped.
On the western edge of the village, the shrine of Sanyadan is under the tamarind tree on the eastern side of the pond. This is now the village idol. In the new moon day, Hindus go there to worship. During the annual Puja, at least hundreds of young and olds go there to take place in worship program. This scene is very unprecedented in the cultural history of Bangla. Many people says, “Sanyadan came from Delhi, and was follower of the renowned suffi Nijam Uddin.” Others says that the local Hindu Rajputra (prince) Sahajadajana converted into Muslim. After being proven in Sufism, the saint became ‘Sanydan’. This old Muslim neighbourhood that was Hindupara in the past is understood from the name of the local ponds.
One of the attractions of the village of Buichi is the Madabari Danga, which is situated on the southern side of the village. This is about ten to twelve bigha area. The average height from the ground surface is about fifteen feet. The ground is in heap shape. This height has increased at a steady pace. The shanty land is now in ruins. Around the meanwhile, a dreary Gor Khat can be found. Currently, four separate ponds have been formed. There was a story of a king associated with the ground. Maldanga and Shuldanga is situated on the bank of Madabari. Now all of them are reformed in cultivating land. The archaeological treasury collected from Madabari ground are fossils of the head of a snake, red-black-gray pottery pieces, gray-black clay patterns, northern Indian smooth chikkan, black clay patterns, designed bricks, tail-shaped horses, small with oily prints The puppet. The puppet, two terracotta plaques – a compound made of ‘Bal Ganesha’, ten inches wide and five inches long rectangular slabe of knights. Clay bids, colourful stones etc. Besides, inscription written on Brahmi-Kharosti in seven-cm diameter round stone bowl. Vishnu Padapith, Vishnu’s body, Kali statue, currency of the Muslim period found inside the village. And many other types of archaeological sites.
Notable red-black gray, gray-black and reddish potteries are found in the mud culture derived from Madabari ground. However, gray-brown clay potteries are very smooth. Both types of wheels and handmade potteries can be seen there. Several pieces of raw brown pottery are collected. The small sized pitchers that have been found are quite varied. It is very important that the small pitchers that are draped in the dye are very important. It is known that the same have been found in Pandu Rajar Dhibi. Because of the complete destruction of the eastern part of the river, there are very many clay horses. Horses are of three types. The first is eight inches in large. Stir mixed tart soil. Poly clay plaque on top. The second type is the four- Inch long tailed horse. The third type is the toy horse. The triangle face and the eyes are circular.
The warrior plate is important in the terracotta plaque. It is a temple slab of the warrior, without any doubt. A warrior was aiming arrow sitting on the horse. The chariot is on the back. Only six faces in a line above the head of the warrior. Their eyes are terrifying. According to experts, it is a sign of the art of Kushan era. If there is no doubt about the historical monuments of the old copper civilization will be found, while excavating the Madabari ground. But that’s it! No excavation formed yet. However, one of the oldest treasure of archaeological site is an inscription written on Brahmi and Kharosti, is a rare mixed blend of letters. Before the detailed discussion about it, there is a need for some discussion about Mishra shila lipi.
Ashok’s ‘Shilanushasana’ shows the use of two types of scripts. Kharoshthi and Brahmi script. Experts says Brahmi script is the mother of the modern scripts of India. In addition to the Aramaic script used by Mesopotamian Aramaks is the origin of Kharosthi script. In ancient times, the Aramikas used to operate in the northwestern Indian states. Later, Greek Shaks also used this Aramic script. Because they also became the ruler of that region. The relations with Bangladesh grew steadily while trading with this region. Best horses were found from this region. While trading with them, Brahmi, Khrushti scripts were both used as well. In this way they started using a mixed scripts of Brahmi and Kharosthi scripts. According to Bratindranath Mukhopadhyay, according to ‘Bouddha Lalit Bistar’ treatise, writteen in the first or second century AD, it is said that scripts written in then time is told as mixed font scripts. Dr. Mukhyopadhyay has deciphered many mixed scripts like this. “New Epigraphic and Palaeographic Discoveries by Dr. BN Mukherjee, Pratna Samiksha Vol-1 has a long description about it.
In the Kusana era, from the fourth stage of the Panduraja, the inscription was written by Michael Riddle as AETA. According to Dr. Bratindranath Mukherjee, it is an example of writing the Kharosti in Bravargimi. It means killing or sacrifice for some donations or sacrifices at the time of sacrifice. Our story is the Mangalkot archipelago From Kharosthi or Khrosthi Brahmi mixed script, similar to this though there is no sign so far matched the Mixed scripts found from Buichi village of Mangalkot.
The script found from Madabari is awesome. A stone made bowl and two deep lines circling the bowl. A 1.5 cm long foot print is inside of it, drawn carving the stone. In it 13 letter of Brahmi and Kharosthi fonts is used to engrave the text. Historian Bratindranath Mukherjee has said the reporter after reading the text, that the inscription is in Prakrit, written “malarajniya dhwajabara is the best.” According to him, Malarajya is the rename of Narayana or Vishnu. According to Dr. Mukherjee, the inscript was written estimated in the first century AD.
The script is important for many reasons. The Greek Latin writers said, since the late Ganges and Maurya period, there is not much information about the reign of the kingdom of Bengal till the establishment of the Gupta dynasty. There are some speculations in the political and religious history of Rarh region from the Susunia Paharlipi of the 4th century of Bakura.
In the ‘Paharlipi, it is said that “The King of Puskarana, Maharaja Shree Singh Barma’s son, Maharaja Sree Chandra Barma done it. And Bishnu wrote it.” In the region we have seen the expression of Vishnuvakti In Shusunya Pahalipi, Vishnu is named as ‘Chakraswami’ in Sudhuniya Paharlipi (hill inscription, inscription written on hill), and in Buichi inscription, the name of Vishnu is ‘Dhwajabar’. In the Rarh region, there is a spread of Jainism and Buddhism, but one of the most divinistic religions or Vaishnavism is taking place. This is why ‘Dhwajabar’ is best described in the script.
Later, Vishnu Vignan was found to have received the vast experience of Pal-Sen era from the villages of Greater Katwa subdivision. Figures are six feet and up to one foot in height. Five Vishnu passes were found in the recent Ajay river. Many of them was stolen. The reporter has found around 100 images in the field. Mangalkot, Ujani, Buichi, Khirgram, Devagram, Kurumba, Ite, Balrampur, Shitalgam, Yageshwar Dihi, Ban Kapashi, Khedhua, Koichar, Aamgora, Pachundi, Balutia, Mougram, Enayetpur, Nahata, Bagotana, Chaitanyapur, Vulkuri, Chanduli is where one or more Vishnu statues are found. There are no region in Bengal where so many fetish images are found.
We believe that the outreach of Vaisnavism was reduced to void after the Turkish invasion. With the advent of Sree Chaitanya in the sixteenth century, the tide of Vaishnavism came again in this region. This is why the Katwa subdivision became the main pillar of Gaudiya Baishnab relegion. Because this subdivision was the center of ancient Mall region. In Markendeya Note, there was no place as Burdwan, but in the seven verses of this Purana 31 to 41 number of slogans, among the 19 eastern parts of the country, the names of the Malla was found. No one one knows, if Malla is the Mall kingdom, or not.
References : Pratna Samiksha, Rarh Manane o Samikshane” by Dr. Swapan kumar Thakur, Nandanik.
Photo courtesy, Dr. Swapan Kumar Thakur.
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